|Title||Refusals After Prehospital Administration of Naloxone during the COVID-19 Pandemic.|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||2021|
|Authors||Glenn MJ, Rice AD, Primeau K, Hollen A, Jado I, Hannan P, McDonough S, Arcaris B, Spaite DW, Gaither JB|
|Journal||Prehosp Emerg Care|
|Date Published||2021 Jan-Feb|
|Keywords||Adult, Aged, COVID-19, Emergency Medical Services, Female, Humans, Incidence, Male, Middle Aged, Naloxone, Narcotic Antagonists, Pandemics, Retrospective Studies, SARS-CoV-2|
OBJECTIVE: To determine if COVID-19 was associated with a change in patient refusals after Emergency Medical Services (EMS) administration of naloxone.
METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study in which the incidence of refusals after naloxone administration in a single EMS system was evaluated. The number of refusals after naloxone administration was compared across the before-pandemic interval (01/01/20 to 02/15/20) and the during-pandemic interval (03/16/20 to 04/30/20). For comparison the incidence of all other patient refusals before and during COVID-19 as well as the incidences of naloxone administration before and during COVID-19 were also reported.
RESULTS: Prior to the widespread knowledge of the COVID-19 pandemic, 24 of 164 (14.6%) patients who received naloxone via EMS refused transport. During the pandemic, 55 of 153 (35.9%) patients who received naloxone via EMS refused transport. Subjects receiving naloxone during the COVID-19 pandemic were at greater risk of refusal of transport than those receiving naloxone prior to the pandemic (RR = 2.45; 95% CI 1.6-3.76). Among those who did not receive naloxone, 2067 of 6956 (29.7%) patients were not transported prior to the COVID-19 pandemic and 2483 of 6016 (41.3%) were not transported during the pandemic. Subjects who did not receive naloxone with EMS were at greater risk of refusal of transport during the COVID-19 pandemic than prior to it (RR = 1.39; 95% CI 1.32-1.46).
CONCLUSION: In this single EMS system, more than a two-fold increase in the rate of refusal after non-fatal opioid overdose was observed following the COVID-19 outbreak.
|Alternate Journal||Prehosp Emerg Care|
Refusals After Prehospital Administration of Naloxone during the COVID-19 Pandemic.
Brittany Arcaris, MD
Joshua B. Gaither, MD, FACEP
Melody J. Glenn, MD
Philipp L. Hannan, MD
Keith Primeau, MD, MPH
Amber Rice, MD
Daniel W. Spaite, MD