Intubation During Pediatric Cardiac Arrest in the Emergency Department Is Associated With Reduced First-Pass Success.

TitleIntubation During Pediatric Cardiac Arrest in the Emergency Department Is Associated With Reduced First-Pass Success.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsPacheco GS, Patanwala AE, Leetch AN, Mendelson JS, Hurst NB, Sakles JC
JournalPediatr Emerg Care
Date Published2022 May 01
ISSN Number1535-1815
KeywordsAdult, Airway Management, Child, Emergency Service, Hospital, Humans, Intubation, Intratracheal, Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest, Registries

BACKGROUND: Airway compromise and respiratory failure are leading causes of pediatric cardiac arrest making advanced airway management central to pediatric resuscitation. Previous literature has demonstrated that achieving first-pass success (FPS) is associated with fewer adverse events. In cardiac arrest for adult patients, increasing number of intubation attempts is associated with lower likelihood of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and favorable neurologic outcome. There is limited evidence regarding advanced airway management for pediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) in the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this study was to compare FPS in pediatric OHCA and non-cardiac arrest patients in the ED.

METHODS: This is an analysis of pediatric intubations prospectively recorded into a continuous quality improvement database in an academic pediatric ED over a 12-year period. Between July 1, 2007, and June 30, 2019, physicians recorded all intubations performed in the pediatric ED. The database included patient demographics and detailed information about each intubation such as age of the patient, reason for intubation, number of intubation attempts, and outcome of each attempt. All patients younger than 18 years who underwent intubation in the ED were eligible for inclusion in the study. The primary outcome was FPS for pediatric patients in cardiac arrest compared with those not in cardiac arrest. A logistic regressions analysis was performed to identify characteristics associated with FPS in OHCA patients.

RESULTS: Six hundred eight pediatric patients were intubated during the study period. One hundred three pediatric patients had OHCA compared with 459 non-cardiac arrest patients who underwent rapid sequence intubation. In patients with OHCA, 47.6% had FPS (95% confidence interval [CI], 38.2%-57.1%), 33% required 2 attempts (95% CI, 24.7%-42.6%), and 19.4% required 3 or more attempts (95% CI, 12.9%-28.2%). In patients without OHCA, 75.4% had FPS (95% CI, 75.4%-79.1%), 15% required 2 attempts (95% CI, 12.0%-18.6%), and 9.6% required 3 or more attempts (95% CI, 7.2%-12.6%). Cardiac arrest was associated with a reduction in FPS adjusted odds ratio 0.44 (95% CI, 0.26-0.77).

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found that pediatric OHCA is associated with reduced FPS in the ED. Although additional studies are needed, rescuers should prioritize restoring effective oxygenation and ventilation and optimizing intubation conditions before an advanced airway attempt.

Alternate JournalPediatr Emerg Care
PubMed ID35482505
Faculty Reference: 
Nicholas B. Hurst, MD, MS
Aaron N. Leetch, MD, FACEP
Garrett Pacheco, MD
John C. Sakles, MD, FACEP